Perspectives in Psychology

Perspectives in Psychology Explained | The Evolution of Psychology

Psychology is defined as the study of Human minds and behaviors. Many psychologists explained and have presented different looks toward the understanding of interests and explanations of human behavior. Through this, many perspectives in psychology emerged.

Beginning from Aristotle to the later meaning of brain science, no single orientation has arisen as the right approach to surveying the human way of behaving and mental cycles. These days perspectives of organizers behind brain science have mixed such a lot that they never again exist as a contrasting way of thinking.

The major 7 perspectives in psychology that evolved are cognitive, behavioral, psychodynamic, humanistic, biological, socio-cultural, and evolutionary.

Perspectives in Psychology

Perspectives in psychology refer to different ways of viewing and understanding human behavior, mental processes, and the mind. These perspectives provide frameworks for studying and interpreting psychological phenomena. There are several major perspectives in psychology:

  1. Biological Perspective: This perspective focuses on how biological factors, such as genetics, hormones, and the nervous system, influence behavior and mental processes. It emphasizes the role of biology in shaping who we are and how we behave.
  2. Cognitive Perspective: The cognitive perspective examines how people perceive, think, remember, and solve problems. It explores mental processes such as attention, memory, language, and decision-making, and emphasizes the role of internal mental structures and processes in shaping behavior.
  3. Behavioral Perspective: This perspective emphasizes the role of observable behavior and the environmental factors that influence it. It views behavior as learned through interactions with the environment, and focuses on principles of reinforcement, punishment, and conditioning.
  4. Psychodynamic Perspective: Invented by Sigmund Freud, this viewpoint highlights the role of unconscious conflicts and early childhood experiences in shaping behavior and personality. It explores concepts such as the unconscious mind, defense mechanisms, and the influence of past experiences on present behavior.
  5. Humanistic Perspective: The humanistic perspective emphasizes the inherent goodness and potential for growth in individuals. It focuses on subjective experiences, free will, and self-actualization—the process of fulfilling one’s potential and becoming the best version of oneself.
  6. Social-Cultural Perspective: This perspective emphasizes the influence of social and cultural factors on behavior and mental processes. It examines how cultural norms, societal expectations, and social interactions shape individual behavior, beliefs, and attitudes.
  7. Evolutionary Perspective: Drawing on principles of evolutionary biology, this perspective explores how psychological processes and behaviors have evolved to adapt to the challenges of survival and reproduction. It examines how natural selection has shaped human behavior and cognition over time.

1. Cognitive Perspective

One of the most important psychological perspectives in psychology is the cognitive perspective. It focuses on the processing, organizing, storing, and retrieving of all information and is concerned with the higher mental procedures such as thinking, memory, perception, etc.

The cognitive perspective is the recently developed field explaining human behavior developed during the 1960s. The first contributors to this perspective are George Miller (1920), Jerome Bruner (1915), and Ulrich Neisser (1928).

Cognition covers the improved intellectual technique of perceiving, believing, thinking, remembering, knowing, deciding, and so on. The word “Cognito” means “I think”. Cognition is an intellectual technique wherein evidence is received, processed, transferred, stored, retrieved, and used. It analyzes thinking, how we interpret and apprehend words, resolve trouble, make decisions, use language, and talk our minds to others.

For example, if someone stops us on a highway, and if we comprehend him to demand help (his car is broken), we should stop offering help and remember that someone once helped us in a related status.

Behavior is guided by cognition from this perspective. Consequently, cognition plays a vital role in guiding behavior. The role of cognition in behavior can therefore be seen as vital. In this view, cognition plays a crucial role in guiding behavior. Cognition is crucial to guiding behavior from this perspective. Consequently, cognition plays an important role in behavior.
Hence, cognition guides behavior in this context. In this perspective, cognition plays a very important role in guiding behavior. It can be said that cognition guides behavior from this perspective. The role of cognition in guiding behavior is thus evident from this point of view.

On the other hand, if we consider that he is planning to rob at gunpoint or remember a bad accident with a related situation, we would not assist him. This declared that cognition assists in analyzing the situation. According to this perspective, cognition plays a vital role in guiding behavior.

2. Behavioral Perspective

Another biogenic psychological perspective is the behavioral perspective. It is founded on noticeable behavior without giving value to mental processes such as thinking, which expresses that learning plays a vital role in dominating and influencing all behaviors.

The behavioral perspective of psychology declares that only shown behaviors are observable and not mental processes. It was J.B. Waston who innovated the idea of behaviorism, and the work of Ivan Pavlov influenced him to work on behaviorism.

Watson, then declared that human behavior can be calculated by observable behavior, and not by the study of mind or consciousness. He defined and practiced these rules for animals which were later used for humans.

Later, these Perspectives in psychology were preceded by the B.F. Skinner is one of the greatest modern psychologists. Skinner uses behavior in a very simple way. He used to remedy diseases and change the behavior of animals in a mixture of settings. The principles of Skinner’s are also used to train dolphins, seals, and other animals in the circus or at home.

3. Psychodynamic Perspective

Sigmund Freud formulated the psychodynamic technique, which is used to study abnormal behavior. Freud felt the basis of psychological problems are motives of sexual and aggressive nature which stay at the unconscious level of the mind.

The term psychodynamic is used because these unconscious motives and group actions influence our behavior even though we do not know they exist. They are discovered in masked, symbolic ways such as in dreams, in bloomers of the tongue, and sometimes in psychological difficulty.

Freud also centered on early childhood and emphasized that early content has major influences on personality development. The psychodynamic perspective is widely known for nourishing dysfunctional behavior by bringing the unconscious causes of distress to the conscious level.

4. Humanistic Perspective

It expresses the psychological health of human beings, through psychotherapies, focusing on the individual’s free will, values, and quality of people.

The humanistic perspective of psychology was formulated by Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, and Viktor Frankl during the 1950s and 1960s. This perspective has a very multifaceted view of human beings’ equality to psychoanalysis and behaviorism psychology perspectives in psychology.

This perspective focuses on freedom in controlling human behavior. According to them, each person is an unequaled individual and experiences the world differently. One of the most important humanistic principles is that all human beings have a basic powerful inborn tendency to grow and better to their fullest potential, and a feeling to take control of their own lives.

Humanistic psychologists are the “least scientific” of all perspectives in psychology. The principle they focus on is very difficult to analyze technologically because it is characterized by philosophical aspects of human life.

5. Physiological or Biological Perspective

This perspective mainly focuses on the physiology engaged in all forms of behavior and mental processes. Uses research tools to investigate the functioning of the brain and nerve impulses and centers primarily on the role of heredity in normal and abnormal behavior patterns.

Every human behavior is affiliated with physiological changes within the body. The working relationship between the body, behavior, and mental processes is the focal point of the biological perspective. The physiological perspective identifies the role of nerve cells in various aspects of man-to-man behavior in feeling, reasoning, problem-solving, intelligence, speaking, etc.

In recent years, physiological psychologists have focused on the causes of heredity in personality characteristics and abilities. They are also concentrating on behavior genetics to shape how much genes and environment influence individual differences.

Karl Lashley especially focused on the nonstop activity of the brain and its central interaction with the surroundings and a changing composite of the movement systems. Lashley emphasized tiredness, lower motivation, and poor recall as the three elements that are especially important in forgetting.

6. Evolutionary Perspective

The evolutionary perspective describes how natural selection disposition traits that encourage the continuance of one’s genes. How does evolution-determinant behavior take care and how does that behavior or structure assist in adjusting to the environment?

A biological process perspective is based on the work formed by Charles Darwin (1859) who popularized the theory of evolution almost 150 years ago. The evolutionary perspective focuses on the role the bodily constitution and behavior play in the accommodation process of a living thing to the environment.

Darwin, in his theory of evolution, generalizes three basic factors variance, inheritance, and assortment.

alteration remark to the fact that organisms belonging to a given species vary in different ways. Every human being has individual divergence, differing in shape, size, intelligence, personality, health, and so on.
Inheritance cite to the reality that some of these variations can be antique from generation to generation.
Selection mention to the particular behavior the organisms have adapted to best suit their environment.

7. Socio-Cultural Perspective

The main focus point of the socio-cultural perspective is, how behavior and thinking differ across different cultures and societies.

The style human beings interact and germinate from their early life to old age is stated through a perspective in psychology best known as the sociocultural view. Socio-cultural psychology state how our personality, beliefs, attitude, skills, and values are molded by our culture ethnicity, gender, religion, and other important socio-cultural factors.

Socio-cultural aspects are obsessed with how people interact, are interdependent, and inter-coordinate with each other to determine factors and to be influenced by each other.


These 7 perspectives in psychology are recognized as suitable means to understand human different characters, needs, styles, evolution, and many other things. By across-the-board examination of one or two linear perspectives, one can be able to realize why and how humans do the way they do.

These perspectives in psychology are effective ways to interpret various problems of people which can be beneficial to different scholars, researchers, psychologists, and students.

nevertheless, it can not be aforesaid that these 7 views are only the perspectives in psychology. Rather, scientists, today are progressively involved in researching many more accomplishable viewpoints, and in the future, there may much more views that in addition help to understand people, us, or human nature in an improved way.


  1. What are the 7 main perspectives in psychology?

    The 7 main perspectives in psychology are:
    Biological perspective
    Cognitive perspective
    Behavioral perspective
    Psychodynamic perspective
    Humanistic perspective
    Social-Cultural perspective
    Evolutionary perspective

  2. What is the perspective of psychology?

    The perspective of psychology refers to a particular approach or framework used to study and understand human behavior, mental processes, and the mind. Each perspective offers a unique viewpoint and set of assumptions about how psychological phenomena should be studied and interpreted.

  3. What are the 5 major perspectives in psychology?

    The 5 major perspectives in psychology are:
    Biological perspective
    Cognitive perspective
    Behavioral perspective
    Psychodynamic perspective
    Humanistic perspective

  4. What are the 8 contemporary perspectives in psychology?

    Contemporary perspectives in psychology can vary depending on the source or context, but here are 8 commonly recognized ones:
    Biological perspective
    Cognitive perspective
    Behavioral perspective
    Psychodynamic perspective
    Humanistic perspective
    Social-Cultural perspective
    Evolutionary perspective
    Positive psychology perspective

  5. What is called perspective?

    In psychology, a perspective is a particular viewpoint or approach used to understand and explain human behavior, mental processes, and psychological phenomena.

  6. What is the concept of perspective?

    The concept of perspective directs to a particular way of considering or understanding something. In psychology, perspectives provide frameworks or lenses through which psychologists analyze and interpret human behavior and mental processes.

If you want to read more articles similar to Perspectives in Psychology, we recommend that you enter our Psychology category.

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