Bullying its types and its consequences

Bullying it’s 8 types and its consequences | psychologyorg

Bullying is a form of abuse present in the school environment among children, adolescents, and young people with a very high prevalence today. It is said that one in four students suffer or have suffered intimidation. Given the high ratio of this type of abuse in recent years, there have been many studies carried out to examine the causes that originate it with the intention of creating healthful programs that allow this problem to be detected in time to avoid it as much as possible. the devastating consequences that this type of harassment generates for the victims.


Bullying causes

The roots of the different types of intimidation are usually the same and their causes are related to the personality and living environment of both the aggressor and the victim and the observers.


With regard to the aggressor, the factors that usually lead this intellect to adopt this role of the abuser over his peers are lack of motivation to control, excessive aggression and anger, unregulated family environment, and/or plagued by abuse, negligence, or lack of limits, lack of self-esteem and endless affective deficiencies.


With regard to the victim, the person who suffers from bullying is usually characterized as a person with low self-esteem, fearful, with a lack of vital force who, like the aggressor, has built his personality on an emotional and psychological basis with certain affective deficiencies.

In this case, this has given rise to a fragile and fearful personality that is often the target of abusive personalities.


In the case of the group of observers, many factors condition their passive behavior that increases and feeds the abuses carried out, but we could summarize them in two: disorientation in the face of such a situation of abuse and an attempt not to attract attention so as not to suffer the same abuse that his partner or approaching the leader as a source of power, copying or encouraging his abusive behaviors

The consequences that occur, in general terms, on the aggressors are an increase in their levels of impulsiveness and aggressiveness and in the use of coercive techniques as a lawful source of power. In observers, this type of abuse tends to provoke, on the one hand, more fear and protection against possible situations of abuse, or, in the other group, it encourages a disobedient view of the possibility of changing power through different types of intimidation.

physical bullying

Physical aggression refers to a whole set of acts of physical violence that the offender performs on the victim, encouraged by passive individuals. Hitting, shoving, fighting, slapping, tripping, etc. are examples of physical aggression that the aggressor uses to intimidate the affected person.

The consequences that this type of abuse generates on the victim, in addition to psychological suffering, is added to the physical pain derived from the attacks. In turn, it causes great defenselessness and increases submission over aggressor figures.


Psychological bullying

Psychological aggression refers to all types of abuse carried out through actions that directly or indirectly constitute manipulation of the victim, and accelerate the force of the aggressor and his influence over him: blackmail, threats, intimidating gestures, etc.

This type of abuse increases the victim’s fear of certain situations and school environments, causes anxiety in the face of the unexpected manipulations of the aggressor, and great inner restlessness and defenselessness.


verbal bullying

This type of intimidation refers to all kinds of verbal maltreatment that the attacker exerts on his victim straight or through written messages or third parties: insults, mockery, humiliation, false rumors, shouting, threats, etc.

The consequences of this type of domineering on the victim would be psychological paralysis and bodily numbness in the presence of the aggressor or in front of his classmates, fear and panic in certain school situations, learned helplessness, increased introversion harming his subsequent social relationships, anxiety, etc…


sexual bullying

Sexual aggression can occur through various appearances such as homophobic behaviors towards certain sexual directions, vexatious comments or acts, and, in extreme cases, sexual abuse.

The consequences of these acts on the victim are very damaging, as is well known in the case of any type of child or youth sexual abuse. A very deep part of people who are sexually assaulted is broken and, in many cases, psychological dissociations can occur as a protection mechanism against the pain suffered.

Personal devaluation, mistrust of the world, and defenselessness increase exponentially in these cases. In this article, you will find more information about Dissociative Disorders: what they are, their symptoms, causes, and treatment.


social bullying

Social aggression refers to all those behaviors pleased by the aggressor that cause apathy towards the victim on the part not only of him but of a large part of his state of affairs. The manipulative attitude of the aggressor inspires, in the rest of the classmates, behaviors of rejection, state of affairs, or indifference towards the victim in question.

The psychological consequences on the affected person increase their low levels of self-esteem and can provoke in their responses of flight and social and school avoidance that, over time, can give movement to different types of phobias such as social phobia, agoraphobia, etc.

Types of bullying and its consequences - Social bullying

cyber bullying

Unfortunately, cyberbullying has become a great tool for school aggression given the magnitude of its consequences and, in turn, the possibility of maintaining the anonymity of the aggressor. This type of abuse occurs through all kinds of social networks in which vexatious images, videos, or gossip about the victim of aggression are disseminated.

The consequences that this type of abuse generates on the victim can lead to states of paranoia and psychological and emotional blockage and paralysis.

The most serious of the consequences that prolonged blustery situations of any kind can give rise to on the victim is suicide. Work to prevent this type of abuse from schools becomes an obligation for authorities, teachers, and parents as the best way to protect the weakest and most vulnerable people.

This article is merely informative, at Psychology-Online we do not have the power to make a diagnosis or recommend treatment. We invite you to go to a psychologist to treat your particular case.



In conclusion, Bullying is a widespread and harmful behavior that affects individuals of all ages, genders, and backgrounds. It can have severe physical, emotional, and psychological consequences, leading to decreased self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and even suicide. To prevent aggression, it is important to promote positive social relationships and create safe environments that promote respect and kindness toward others. This can be achieved through education, parental involvement, community involvement, and effective policies and procedures in schools and workplaces. By employed together, we can generate a world free from aggression and provide support for those who have been affected by this harmful behavior.

If you want to read more articles similar to this, we recommend that you enter our Social Psychology category.

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